His research interests include computational electromagnetics and acoustics, inverse problems, and their application in nanophotonics, geophysics, biomedical imaging, and electronic packaging. He has published over 400 papers in refereed journals and 500 papers in conference proceedings. He was with the Electromagnetics Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as a Research Assistant from September 1986 to December 1988, and as a Postdoctoral Research Associate from January 1989 to February 1990. He was a Research Scientist and Program Leader with Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT from 1990 to 1995. From 1996 to May 1999 he was an Associate Professor with New Mexico State University. Since June 1999 he has been with Duke University where he is now a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
Dr. Liu is a Fellow of the IEEE, the Acoustical Society of America, the Electromagnetics Academy, and the Optical Society of America. Currently he serves as the founding Editor-in-Chief of the new IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques, the Deputy Editor in Chief of Progress in Electromagnetics Research, an Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, and an Editor of Journal of Computational Acoustics. He received the 1996 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) from the White House, the 1996 Early Career Research Award from the Environmental Protection Agency, and the 1997 CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation. He serves as an IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Distinguished Lecturer for 2014-2016. He received the ACES technical achievement award in 2017.