ECE 590.01

Quantum Engineering with Atoms

Spring 2020
Instructor: Jungsang Kim, Geert Vrijsen
Course Objective

In this course, we discuss the basic principles of atomic physics that are used to create practically useful devices today, such as the atomic clock, atomic sensors, and quantum computers. Similar to the very early days of semiconductor devices, the atoms are moving from the realm of fundamental physics to the target of practical engineering for useful devices. We will spend the first half of the semester covering the basic mathematical and physical framework for understanding the atomic physics, and spend the second half of the semester learning about how adequate control of these atomic properties can lead to practical devices with performances unmatched by other technologies.

Class Location and Hours

Time:    Monday & Wednesday 10:05 - 11:20 am

Location: Hudson 218

NEW - ON-LINE CLASS Starting 3/23/2020

Due to the COVID-19 situation, we will be moving all of our classes on-line, using Zoom link. The meeting times will be the same as our normal class.

Time:    Monday & Wednesday 10:05 - 11:20 am

The Zoom meeting can be joined via the Zoom app (or through your computer), or by phone (voice only). Given we will be sharing documents, etc., so it is important to join via the app or the web link if at all possible. The following link should be used to sign into the course.

Join Zoom Meeting
https://duke.zoom.us/j/250097931

Meeting ID: 250 097 931

Contacting the Instructor & TA outside Classroom

If you need to contact me outside the class, please email me or come to my office hours:

Professor Jungsang Kim
Dr. Geert Vrijsen

Office: 2519 FCIEMAS (Regular office is in Chesterfield Building, Suite 400)

Office Hours: TBD

Email: jungsang@duke.edu
Email: gv23@duke.edu

Office Hours: TBD
Class Organization and Activities
Each week, we will have one lecture that will discuss the physical and mathematical description of the properties of an atom and/or its interaction with electromagnetic fields. We will then have a second "lab" lecture, where we will develop a modeling tool to describe these physical properties. Throughout the semester, we will learn how to construct a practical modeling tool for simulating the behavior of the atomic systems, which will help with the intuitive understanding of the atomic properties used to construct useful devices and systems for quantum sensing and quantum computation.
Recommended Reference
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Bernard Diu and Frank Laloe, "Quantum Mechanics Volume II", Wiley-VCH & Sons.
ISBN 978-3527345540

Other Helpful Textbook


Assignments and Grading
.

The grades will be based on:

The homework problems will be almost exclusively programming tasks, and you are welcome to collaborate with other classmates or in consultation with the instructor. The mid-term exams and final exam/project instructions will be given at the time of the assignment.
Academic Misconduct:  The goal of this course is to learn exciting topic, and academic misconduct will not get us there. The course is designed to have little room for academically dishonest behavior. For what it's worth, I will not tolerate any academically dishonest behavior!!
Please review the Duke Community Standard found here.

Topics, Lecture Notes, and Reading Assignments

 The Instructor will post lecture notes (in PDF format) on this website by the morning of the lectures. You are expected to print out the lecture notes and bring them to class.

Class Date
Topic References
1/8/2020
Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics
Introduction

Lecture Notes 1
 
1/13/2020
The Hydrogen Atom
LectureNotes 2-Rev

1/15/2020
Radial Dipole Matrix Elements
Programming Exercise 1-Revised
Atomic Transition Probabilities
1/20/2020
No Class (MLK Day)

1/22/2020
Spherical Harmonics
Programming Exercise 2

1/27/2020
Magnetic Moment and Magnetic Resonance
LectureNotes 3-Revised

1/29/2020
Magnetic Moment and L-S Coupling
Programming Exercise 3

2/3/2020
Addition of Angular Momentum and Spin-Orbit Coupling
LectureNotes 4-Revised

2/5/2020
Two-Level Systems, Rabi Oscillations and Composite Pulses
Programming Exercise 4

2/10/2020
Perturbation Theory
LectureNotes 5

2/12/2020
Applications of Perturbation Theory: Stark Effect

2/17/2020
Applications of Perturbation Theory: Hyperfine Structure
LectureNotes 6-Revised

2/19/2020
Examples: Perturbation Theory
Programming Exercise 5

2/24/2020
Hyperfine Structure and Zeeman Effect
LectureNotes 5-Revised

2/26/2020
Time-dependent Perturbation Theory: Harmonic Perturbation
LectureNotes 6-Revised

3/2/2020
Time-dependent Perturbation Theory: Einstein's model and Adiabatic Theorem
LectureNotes 6-Revised

3/4/2020
Atom-Light Interaction
LectureNotes 7

3/23/2020
Atomic Coherence
LectureNotes 9-Rev
A. Aspect, E. Arimondo, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Laser cooling below the one-photon recoil energy by velocity-selective coherent population trapping," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 826 (1988)
K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 (1991).
3/25/2020
Density Matrix Formulation
LectureNotes 8
Programming Exercise 6-Revised
Slides - Density Matrices

3/30/2020
Raman Transitions
LectureNotes 10
Recorded Lecture
F. Riehle, Th. Kisters, A. Witte, J. Helmcke and Ch. J. Borde, "Optical Ramsey spectroscopy in a rotating frame: Sagnac effect in a matter-wave interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 177 (1991).
M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
H. Levine, A. Keesling, A. Omran, H. Bernien, S. Schwartz, A. S. Zibrov, M. Endres, M. Greiner, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, "High-fidelity control and entanglement of Rydberg-atom qubits", Phys. B: Rev. Lett. 121, 123603 (2018).
4/1/2020
Two-Photon Processes
LectureNotes 8 - Rev1
Programming Exercise 7
Slides - Three Level Systems
Recorded Lecture
G. Morigi, J. Eschner, and C. H. Keitel, "Ground state laser cooling using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4458 (2000).
4/6/2020
Quantum Computation with Trapped Ions
LectureNotes 11
Recorded Lecture
J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum computation with cold trapped ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995).
A. Sorensen and K. Molmer, "Entanglement and quantum computation with ions in thermal motion," Phys. Rev. A 62, 022311 (2000).
4/8/2020
Quantum Computation with Trapped Ions - Molmer-Sorensen gates
LectureNotes 11-Rev
Programming Exercise 8
Slides - Molmer-Sorensen Gates
Recorded Lecture

4/13/2020
Quantum Networking with Trapped Ions - Quantum Teleportation and Entanglement Swapping
LectureNotes 12
Slides - Quantum Teleportation
Recorded Lecture
C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993).
D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, andA. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature 390, 575 (1997).
4/15/2020
Quantum Networking
Slides - Quantum Networks
Recorded Lecture
C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Popescu, B. Schumacher, J. A. Smolin, and W. K. Wooters, "Purification of noisy entanglement and faithful teleportation via noisy channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722 (1996).
H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J.I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932 (1998).
Homework Assignments
Homework assignments must be turned in before the class begins on the due date. The homework can be turned in one of three ways: (1) Turn in physical copies to the instructor in the class, (2) an electronic version can be emailed to the instructor with cc to TAs, or (3) an electronic version can be "deposited" to the SAKAI site for the course (in this case, please drop the instructor and TAs an email note).

Tentative Schedule

This is a tentative topics we intend to cover in class. This will be updated as the changes arise.

Week of

Monday (10:05 - 11:20 am)

Wednesday (10:05 - 11:20 am)

Jan 6

No Class
Angular Momentum
Jan 13
The Hydrogen Atom
Exercise: Radial Dipole Matrix Elements
Jan 20
Martin Luther King Day - No class
Exercise: Spherical Harmonics
Jan 27
Magnetic Moment Exercise: Magnetic Moment and L-S Coupling
Feb 3
Spin-Orbit Coupling and Fine Structure
Feb 10
Perturbation Theory


Feb 17
Hyperfine Structure
Feb 24 Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory
Mar 2
Dipole Transition and Selection Rules
Mar 9
Spring Break
Spring Break
Mar 16

Extended Spring Break

Extended Spring Break
Mar 23
Atomic Coherence Density Matrix Formulation
Mar 30
Raman Tranisitions and Rydberg Atoms
Apr 6 Quantum Computing
Apr 13
Quantum Networking

Apr 20
Reading Period
Apr 27
FINAL EXAM/PROJECT REPORT, TBD

Mid-Term Exam
The information needed to complete your Mid-Term Exam #1 is provided below. It is a take-home exam that you must work on your own.

1. Before you start the exam, PLEASE READ AND SIGN THE FIRST PAGE OF THE EXAM SHEET for certification. Your submission of the exam solutions MUST INCLUDE A SIGNED COVER PAGE.

2. Due Date: the mid-term exam is a take-home exam. You are welcome to spend as much time as you need to complete the problem. You can turn in the exam directly to the instructor before 12:00pm EST on Friday 3/6/2020, by sliding the solution under the door in FCIEMAS 2519. If you choose to generate your answers in an electronic document, you can also submit the solutions by emailing it to the instructor (jungsang@duke.edu) or by dropping it into the Sakai website. In the event of an electronic submission, please type the cover page as part of your solution and put your name down on the cover page as an electronic signature. 3/6/2020 12:00pm EST is the hard deadline for the mid-term exam.

3. The exam is open-book, and you are supposed to only utilize the recommended textbook (Cohen-Tannoudji, Diu and Laloe), the classroom material provided through the website, notes you have taken in the classroom, and the homework problems. You may not utilize any other resources to solve the exam problems, including any other textbooks or papers, information available through web searches, or any other class material or homework/exam problems/solutions from previous or current courses with similar content, offered at Duke or elsewhere. You are to work on the problems by yourself, and not discuss the problems with anyone else (your classmates, other friends or colleagues, etc.). Violation of these rules will be considered an academic misconduct, and will be subject to punishment.

4. Should you have any questions about the exam, please utilize time after class or send an email to the instructor. No questions received after 10pm on Wednesday 3/4/2020 will be answered.

Mid-Term Exam #1 - Revised 3/2/2020
Revised Problems

Average: 82.6
Std. Dev.: 15.4
Final Exam
The information needed to complete your Final Exam is provided below. It is a take-home exam, given the current situation of remote-learning.

1. Before you start the exam, PLEASE READ AND SIGN THE FIRST PAGE OF THE EXAM SHEET for certification. Your submission of the exam solutions MUST INCLUDE A SIGNED COVER PAGE.

2. Due Date: the mid-term exam is a take-home exam. You are welcome to spend as much time as you need to complete the problems. You must turn in the exam before 10:00pm EDT on Sunday 4/26/2020, by either emailing a scanned/photographed solution to the instructor (jungsang@duke.edu) or by dropping it into the Sakai website. In the event of generating an electronic solution, you can type the cover page as part of your solution and put your name down on the cover page as an electronic signature. 4/26/2020 10:00pm EDT is the hard deadline for the final exam.

3. The exam is open-book and open-source test, and you are welcome to utilize any resources you can find to help understand and come up with your solution set. This includes, but are not limited to, all class materials, any other textbooks or papers, information available through web searches, or any other class material or homework/exam problems/solutions from previous or current courses with similar content, offered at Duke or elsewhere. You welcome to discuss and work on the problems in collaboration with other students in this class, but you are not allowed to simply copy other peoples' solutions or allow others to copy your solutions. You should not discuss or work on problems with those who are not registered for the class. Violation of these rules will be considered an academic misconduct, and will be subject to punishment. If you choose to write a program or leverage the solutions to the programming exercises developed in class, you are welcome to use them to aid your solutions, but the programs should be written by yourself (discussions regarding such programs with other students registered in this class are allowed).

4. Should you have any questions about the exam, please utilize time after class or send an email to the instructor. No questions received after 10pm on Saturday 4/25/2020 will be answered.

Final Exam - Revised 4/23/2020
Problem #3 is provided with more detailed atomic structure.
Problem #4a has been modified.
Revised Problems